ALSO KNOWN AS Oral Cancer,
​includes Cancers of the Tongue, Gum and Jaw

What do we mean by 'Mouth Cancer'? Mouth Cancer is a colloquial term for Oral Cancer. Oral cancer includes cancers of the tongue, gum and jaw bone (sarcoma). If these are not the cancer type you're looking for, please explore the information about other types of Head and Neck Cancers.

All the information in this section is available in a PDF.
Download it here.

1. Signs and symptoms of Mouth Cancer

The signs and symptoms of Mouth Cancer depend on where the cancer is in the mouth, its size and how far it has spread in the body.

Common signs and symptoms include:

  • a sore (like an ulcer) or lump in the mouth that doesn’t go away

  • pain in the mouth or ear

  • white or red patches on the gums, tongue or mouth

  • unusual bleeding or numbness in the mouth

  • trouble chewing or swallowing food, or moving the tongue

  • difficulty opening the mouth

  • a lump in the neck

  • loose teeth or dentures that no longer fit.

Most often these symptoms are not from Mouth Cancer. However, if you have any of these symptoms for more than a few weeks, talk to your doctor as early as possible. They may be able to help diagnose and treat you. 

Watch this 3D video explainer about Mouth Cancer: 

2. Tests for Mouth Cancer

It is important that your doctor establishes the diagnosis of Mouth Cancer, assesses the size of the cancer and whether it has spread to the lymph nodes in the neck or elsewhere in the body.

To answer these questions your doctor may need to do the following things:

  • talk with you about your medical history. This includes signs you may have noticed, any other health conditions, medications that you are taking, and whether you smoke or drink alcohol

  • perform a physical examination by feeling and looking inside your mouth, throat and neck

  • order diagnostic tests, which may include scans.

Not everyone will need to have every test for Mouth Cancer. Your doctor will recommend the tests that are right for you. The most common tests include:


Your doctor will use a very thin flexible tube with a tiny light and camera on it to look inside your nose to see your nasopharynx. 


This involves taking a small piece (sample) from the cancer. The sample is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells. This is often the only sure way to tell if you have cancer. Your doctor may recommend one of the three types of biopsies: 

  • Excision biopsy: This is when the doctor removes the cancer completely. This will usually be done for small cancers in the clinic or the operating room.

  • Incision biopsy: This is when the doctor removes a small piece of tissue using a surgical knife. This can be done in the clinic using local or general anaesthesia, so that you don't feel any pain. Depending on the size and location of the biopsy, you may need stitches. There may be some bleeding after the biopsy. If you take blood thinners, you may need to stop these for a few days before the biopsy.

  • Needle biopsy (Fine Needle Aspiration or FNA): This is used when there is a lump (enlarged lymph node) in the neck that could have cancer cells in it. During the procedure, your doctor will take some cells from the lump using a needle. Usually this is done with guidance from an ultrasound to make sure the needle is in the right spot. You may feel a bit uncomfortable during the biopsy.


This uses X-rays to take pictures of the inside of the body. If the person has cancer, a CT scan can help the doctor to see where it is, measure how big it is, and if it has spread into nearby organs or other parts of your body.


This is a whole body scan that uses a radioactive form of sugar, which can show if oral cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or elsewhere in the body. Many patients with oral cancer do not need a PET scan. 


This uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the inside of the body. This helps the doctor see how far a cancer has grown into the tissue around it. Not all people with oral cancer need a MRI scan. 


This X-ray will help the dental team assess your oral health.


Although there is no blood test specific for Mouth Cancer, other blood tests are important to check your health and fitness for treatment. 

All the information in this section is available in a PDF.
Download it here.
1. Introduction to Mouth Cancer
  • What is Mouth Cancer?
  • What is the oral cavity
  • What does the oral cavity do?
  • What causes Mouth Cancer?
2. Symptoms, signs and tests of Mouth Cancer
  • Signs and Symptoms of Mouth Cancer
  • Tests for Mouth Cancer
3. Treatment for Mouth Cancer
  • Treatment options for Mouth Cancer
  • Surgery 
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  1. Head and Neck Cancer Australia Resources 
  2. External Links to other Head and Neck Cancer Resources